<html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=windows-1251"> <meta name="Generator" content="Igor Kondrashin"> <title>World Philosophical Forum web-site - Papers</title> <meta http-equiv="Content-Style-Type" content="text/css"> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css.css"> <BODY BGPROPERTIES=FIXED BACKGROUND="../fon.gif" BGCOLOR="#ffffff"> </head> <body class="body_txt"> <center> <p><font size="4">[ <a href="http://wpf.unesco-tlee.org/">0 3;02=CN AB@0=8FC $>@C<0</a> ] [ <a href="../../indexr.htm">0 3;02=CN AB@0=8FC</a> ]</font></p> <p><img src="../../../images/bar61.gif" height="7" width="365" border="0"></p> <p><font size="4" color="#004500">@>D. <b>3>@L >=4@0H8=</b> - D8;>A>D</font> </p> <p><font size="4" color="#004500"><b>"25 4@52=53@5G5A:85 B@048F88: ?5@20O 1K;0 2>7@>645=0 >:>;> 100 ;5B =0704;<br> ?@8H;> 2@5<O 2>7@>48BL 8 2B>@CN, A45;02 5Q 8==>20F8>==>9"</b> </p> <p><img src="../../../images/bar18.gif" height="5" width="759" border="0"></p> <blockquote></center> <img src="../../../images/25.jpg" height="123" width="123" border="0" align="right" hspace="20" vspace="5" alt="3>@L >=4@0H8="> <p><dd><font size="4" color="#004500">AB>@8O '5;>25G5AB20 7=05B 425 25;8:85 , :>B>@K5 70@>48;8AL 2 <b>@5F88</b> >:>;> 2,5 BKAOG ;5B =0704. 5@20O - <b>;8<?89A:85 83@K</b>. -B0 4@52=OO B@048F8O D0:B8G5A:8 O2;O5BAO "!>@52=>20=85< 2 D878G5A:>9 A8;5 G5;>25G5A:8E B5;.</p><center> <p><dd><b>I. 5@20O B@048F8O - <i>;8<?89A:85 83@K</i></b></p></center> <p><dd><b>@52=85 <i>;8<?89A:85 83@K</i></b></p> <p><dd>=>3> ;5B =0704 4@52=85 3@5:8 G0AB> 25;8 2>9=K. 0;K5 3>AC40@AB20 AB@040;8 >B MB>3> 8 <=>3> B5@O;8, 4065 5A;8 >=8 =5 ?@8<K:0;8 =8 : >4=>9 87 AB>@>= 8 =5 CG0AB2>20;8 2 2>9=0E. @028B5;L >4=>3> 87 B0:8E <0;5=L:8E 3>AC40@AB2, -;8A, E>B5; 68BL 2 <8@5 A> 2A5<8 A2>8<8 A>A54O<8. = 1K; E>@>H8< 48?;><0B><, ?>B><C GB> 53> ?5@53>2>@K 1K;8 2A5340 CA?5H=K<8, 8 3>AC40@AB2> -;8A 1K;> ?@87=0=> =59B@0;L=K<. 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E>BO >= =8:>340 =5 8A?>;L7>20; MB>B B5@<8= ?> >B=>H5=8N : A2>59 A>1AB25==>9 D8;>A>D88, 5<C 1K;0 >B40=0 G5ABL ?5@2>>B:@K20B5;O =>20B>@A:>3> A?>A>10 <i>480;5:B8:8</i> 535;5< 8 -=35;LA><, :>B>@K5 ?@825BAB2>20;8 53> >BE>4 >B B>3>, GB> >=8 AG8B0;8 AB0B8G5A:>9 B5=45=F859 0@<5=840 8 53> ?>A;54>20B5;59. 0 A0<>< 45;5 5@0:;8B 1K; 1>;55 @0==8< 4>A>:@0B8:><, G5< 0@<5=84, 8 53> <KA;8 O2;ONBAO 4>:070B5;LAB2>< B>3>, GB> 480;5:B8G5A:85 @0<:8 <KH;5=8O 1K;8 ?@8ACI8 70?04=>9 D8;>A>D88 A A0<>3> =0G0;0.<br><dd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br><dd> &5;LN 480;5:B8G5A:>3> <5B>40, G0AB> 8725AB=>3> :0: <i>480;5:B8:0</i>, O2;O5BAO ?KB0BLAO @5H8BL @07=>3;0A8O ?CBQ< @0F8>=0;L=>3> >1AC645=8O, 8, 2 :>=5G=>< AGQB5, ?>8A: 8AB8=K.  07=>3;0A85 8;8 A?>@ O2;ONBAO =0G0;>< :>=D;8:B0 <564C 70O2;5=8O<8 > ?@87=0==>< D0:B5 8 =>2KE 8;8 =5?@87=0==KE ?@54;>65=8OE, :>B>@K5 ?@>B82>@5G0B ?5@2>=0G0;L=K< 0@3C<5=B0<. 48= 87 A?>A>1>2 @07@5H5=8O :>=D;8:B0 - A>:@0B>2A:89 <5B>4 - MB> ?>:070BL, GB> 40==0O 38?>B570 (A =5:>B>@K<8 4>?CA:0<8) 254QB : ?@>B82>@5G8N, B5< A0<K< 70AB02;OO >B>720BL 38?>B57C 2 :0G5AB25 :0=4840B0 =0 8AB8=C (A<. B0:65 reductio ad absurdum - 4>2545=85 4> 01AC@40). !>:@0B>2A:89 <5B>4 (8;8 <5B>4 Elenchus 8;8 A>:@0B>2A:85 48A:CAA88), =0720==K9 2 G5ABL 4@52=53@5G5A:>3> D8;>A>D0 !>:@0B0, O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 D>@< 38?>B57K (3@5G. hypothesis), :>B>@0O A>AB>8B ;81> 87 ?@54;0305<>3> >1JOA=5=8O O2;5=8O (A>1KB8O, :>B>@>5 <>6=> =01;N40BL), ;81> <>B828@>20==>3> ?@54;>65=8O, ?@54;030NI53> 2>7<>6=CN 53> 45<>=AB@0F8N.<br><dd>  :;0AA8G5A:>9 ;>38:5 ?@>B82>@5G85 A>AB>8B 87 ;>38G5A:>9 =5A>2<5AB8<>AB8 <564C 42C<O 8;8 1>;55 ?@54;>65=8O<8. -B> ?@>8AE>48B, :>340 ?@54;>65=8O, 27OBK5 2<5AB5, B5@ONB 7=0G5=85 A;>20 8AB8=K, >A=>20==>9 =0 G5AB=>AB8, 4>1@>A>25AB=>AB8 8 8A:@5==>AB8 2 F5;><, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A D0:B>< 8;8 @50;L=>ABLN Reductio ad absurdum (;0B. "4>2545=8O 4> 01AC@40") B0:65 8725AB=K :0: 0?03>38G5A:89 [3@5G. apagMgos >B2>4OI89 (D8;>A).  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B> 2@5<O, :0: <i>@8B>@8:0</i> >1@0I0;0 2=8<0=85 =0 8A:CAAB2> @5G8, <i>480;5:B8:0</i> 8<5;0 45;> A ;>38G5A:8< <0AB5@AB2>< 0=0;870, 87CG5=85< <i>B578A>2</i> 8 <i>0=B8B578A>2</i>, 8 8A?>;L7>20=85< A8;;>387<>2.</p> <p><dd>>=5F @>64Q==>9 2 4@52=59 @5F88 B@048F88, :0:>2>9 O2;O5BAO <b><i>80;5:B8:0</i></b>, 1K; ?>E>6 =0 :>=5F ?5@2>9 @52=59 B@048F88 - <b><i>;8<?89A:8E 83@</i></b>, >D8F80;L=> 70?@5IQ==KE @8<A:8< 8<?5@0B>@>< $5>4>A85< I 2 393 3>4C =0H59 M@K.<br> <img src="../../../images/just.jpg" height="206" width="156" border="0" align="right" hspace="20" vspace="5" alt="Justinian I"> <dd>B>@0O 4@52=53@5G5A:0O 70<5G0B5;L=0O B@048F8O 1K;0 ?@5:@0I5=0 -48:B>< (#:07><) ?>A;54=53> @8<A:>3> 8<?5@0B>@0 <b>.AB8=80=0 I</b>, :>B>@K9 2 529 3. =.M. 2<5AB5 A @8<A:>-3@5G5A:8< <i>O7KG5AB2><</i> (paganism) 70?@5B8; ?@5?>4020=85 2 D8=A:>9 :045<88 ;0B>=0, ?>AB0282 5Q ?>4 AB@>389 3>AC40@AB25==K9 :>=B@>;L, D0:B8G5A:8 ?@84CH82 MBC H:>;C >1CG5=8O 3@5G5A:8< B@048F8O< (M;;8=87<C). = 70:@K; 2A5 D8;>A>DA:85 H:>;K 2 D8=0E 8 873=0; 8E CG8B5;59 2 5@A8N. "0:8< >1@07><, 2<5AB5 A O7KG5AB2>< 2A5 B5 70<5G0B5;L=K5 8458 480;5:B8G5A:>9 ;0AA8G5A:>9 D8;>A>D88 1K;8 ?>E>@>=5=K 4;O G5;>25G5AB20 =0 4>;385 25:0 8 =5 2>AAB0=>28;8AL ?>;=>ABLN 4> =0H8E 4=59.<br><dd> ! B>3> 2@5<5=8 1>;LH0O G0ABL G5;>25G5AB20 1K;0 >1O70=0 701KBL CG5=8O <i>80;5:B8:8</i> 8 <=>385 ?>:>;5=8O =0G0;8 8 2K=C645=K 1K;8 68BL =0 >A=>25 <i><b>>45:A0 .AB8=80=0 I</i></b>.<br><dd> <i>>45:A .AB8=80=0</i> (Code of Justinian) 1K; ?5@2>9 G0ABLN A1>@=8:0, 7025@H5==>9 7 0?@5;O 529 3. = 2:;NG8; 2 A51O 2A5 <i>:>=AB8BCF88</i> @8<A:8E 8<?5@0B>@>2. !>AB028B5;8 :>45:A0 2 A2>59 @01>B5 >?8@0;8AL =0 1>;55 @0==85 20@80=BK, B0:85 :0: >D8F80;L=K9 <i>>45:A $5>4>A8O</i> (Theodosianus) 8 G0AB=KE :>;;5:F89, B0:8E :0: <i>>45:A @53>@80=0</i> (Gregorianus) 8 <i>>45:A 5@<>35=0</i> (Hermogenianus). <?5@0B>@ 1K; 01A>;NB=K< <>=0@E><, : :>B>@><C A;54>20;> >B=>A8BLAO :0: : =5A><=5==><C ?@028B5;N >B >30 =0 75<;5 8 :>B>@K9 1K; >B25BAB25==K< B>;L:> ?5@54 >3><. >MB><C 53> 70:>=>40B5;L=0O, 8A?>;=8B5;L=0O 8 AC451=0O 2;0ABL 1K;8 =5>3@0=8G5==>9 8?@028;L=>9 2> 2AQ<. 7-70 ?@02>2KE @5D>@<, 22>48<KE A0<8< .AB8=80=><, MB0 @01>B0 ?>74=55 =C640;0AL 2 >1=>2;5=88, 2A;54AB285 G53> 2B>@>5 8740=85 >45:A0 (B0: =07K205<K9 ">45:A repetitae praelectionis") 1K; 8740= 2 534 3., ?>A;5 53> :@0B:>3> 20@80=B0. ! ?><>ILN >45:A0 =02>48;AO >1I5AB25==K9 ?>@O4>: 2 1C4CI59 <?5@88. > A;>20< .AB8=80=0, >45:A @53C;8@>20; 2A5 G5;>25G5A:85 8 @5;838>7=K5 >B=>H5=8O 8 70:>=K A> 2@5<5=8 >A=>20=8O  8<0  ><C;>< 8  5<><, A2>4O 8E 2 GQB:CN A8AB5<C, GB>1K =5 ?CB0BL =0@>4. <?5@0B>@ B0:65 C40;8; ?>2B>@ONI85AO 8;8 :@09=5 =5A?@0254;82K5 70:>=K A B5<, GB>1K >:070BL 2A5< ;N4O< 3>B>2CN ?><>IL 8AB8==>3> 7=0G5=8O".<br> <img src="../../../images/justn.jpg" height="209" width="172" border="0" align="right" hspace="20" vspace="5" alt="Justinian I"> <dd> <i>>45:A .AB8=80=0</i> 2:;NG05B A;54CNI85 N@848G5A:85 0:BK:<br> <dd><i><b>0:>=>40B5;LAB2> > @5;8388</i></b>. =>385 53> ?>;>65=8O A;C60B 4;O >15A?5G5=8O AB0BCA0 ?@02>A;02=>3> E@8AB80=AB20 2 :0G5AB25 <i>3>AC40@AB25==>9 @5;8388</i> 8<?5@88, >1J548=ONI59 &5@:>2L 8 3>AC40@AB2>, 8 ;8H0O 3@0640=AB20 ;N1>3>, :B> =5 1K; A2O70= A E@8AB80=A:>9 F5@:>2LN.<br> <dd><i><b>0:>=K ?@>B82 5@5A8</i></b>. !0<K9 ?5@2K9 70:>= >45:A0 B@51C5B, GB>1K 2A5 ;8F0, =0E>4OI85AO ?>4 N@8A48:F859 8<?5@88, ?@845@6820;8AL A2OB>9 ?@02>A;02=>9 (E@8AB80=A:>9) 25@K. -B> 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L 1K;> =0?@02;5=> ?@>B82 5@5A59, B0:8E :0: 0@80=AB2>. -B>B B5:AB ?>765 AB0; B@0<?;8=>< 4;O >1AC645=8O <564C=0@>4=>3> ?@020, >A>15==> 2>?@>A0 > B><, :0:85 8<5==> ;8F0 =0E>4OBAO ?>4 N@8A48:F859 40==>3> 3>AC40@AB20 8;8 ?@02>2>9 A8AB5<K.<br><dd> <i><b>0:>=K ?@>B82 O7KG5AB20 </i></b> (paganism). @C385 70:>=K, =5 =0?@02;5==K5 =0 O7KG5A:CN 25@C :0: B0:>2CN, 70?@5I0;8 A?5F8D8G5A:85 O7KG5A:85 >1KG08. 0?@8<5@, ?@54CA<0B@820;>AL, GB> 2A5< ;8F0<, ?@8ACBAB2CNI8< =0 O7KG5A:>< 65@B2>?@8=>H5=88, <>3;> 1KBL ?@54JO2;5=> >128=5=85, :0: 70 C189AB2>. <b><i>030=87<</i></b>  O7KG5AB2> (>B ;0B. <i>paganus</i>, >7=0G0NI55 &quot;A5;LA:89 68B5;L&quot;, &quot;?@>AB>4CH=K9 G5;>25:&quot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quot;H0<0=87<&quot;), &5=B@0;L=>9 788, 2AB@0;88 8 D@8:8, 0 B0:65 =502@00<8G5A:85 =0@>4=>9 @5;8388 2 F5;><. >;55 C7:85 >?@545;5=8O =5 2:;NG0NB =8 >4=>9 87 <8@>2KE @5;8389 8 A2>4OB B5@<8= : <5AB=K< 8;8 A5;LA:8< 1KBCNI8< >1@O40<, =5 >@30=87>20==K< :0: F828;87>20==K5 @5;8388. %0@0:B5@8AB8:>9 O7KG5A:8E B@048F89 O2;O5BAO >BACBAB285 ?@>75;8B87<0 (B.5. AB@5<;5=8O >1@0B8BL 4@C38E 2 A2>N 25@C) 8 ?@8ACBAB285 682>9 <8D>;>388, :>B>@0O >1JOA=O5B @5;838>7=CN ?@0:B8:C.<br> <img src="../../../images/diges.jpg" height="206" width="134" border="0" align="right" hspace="20" vspace="5" alt="Corpus Juris"> <dd><b><i>0:>=K ?@>B82 8C4087<0</i></b><br> <p style='text-align:justify;text-indent:153.0pt;line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;line-height:150%'>*<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>*<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>*</span><br> </center> <dd>;D028B=K9 C:070B5;L =0 <i>Corpus Juris</i>, =0 :>B>@K9 45;0NBAO AAK;:8, =0?5G0B0= Gulielmo Rovillio, Lyon, 2 1571 3>4C.</p> <p><dd>!2>8< -48:B>< .AB8=80= I A2Q; <i><b>:;0AA8G5A:CN D8;>A>D8N</i></b> 4> B>3> 65 C@>2=O, GB> <i>5@5AL</i> 8 <i>O7KG5AB2></i>, 8 87-70 MB>3> A B5E ?>@ G5;>25G5AB2> ?>B5@O;> # !", 8  , :0: <b>?5@2>AB5?5==K5 F5==>AB8</b> 2 G5;>25G5A:>9 687=8.  >=8 =5 AB0;8 <i>?5@2>AB5?5==K<8 F5==>ABO<8</i> =0 5<;5 4> A8E ?>@.</p> <p><dd><b>!>2@5<5==0O 480;5:B8:0</b></p> <p><dd>02;5=85 70?@5B0 8<?5@0B>@0 .AB8=80=0 I 1K;> B0:8< A8;L=K<, GB> <K GC2AB2C5< 53> 4> A8E ?>@.  MB>9 A2O78 <i>480;5:B8:0</i> (B0:65 =07K205<0O <i>;>38:>9</i>) =0G0;0 ?>O2;OBLAO >?OBL B>;L:> 2 12-< 25:5, :0: >4=0 87 B@QE A2>1>4=KE 8A:CAAB2, ?@5?>40205<KE 2 A@54=525:>2KE C=825@A8B5B0E :0: G0ABL B@828C<0 (>1@07>20=8O).  B@828C< B0:65 1K;8 2:;NG5=K <i>@8B>@8:0</i> 8 <i>3@0<<0B8:0</i>. #=825@A8B5BK ?>O28;8AL 2 B0;88, $@0=F88 8 =3;88 4;O 87CG5=8O 8A:CAAB20, ?@020, <548F8=K 8 B5>;>388.<br><dd>  A@54=525:>2>9 2@>?5 <i>480;5:B8:0</i> (8;8 <i>;>38:0</i>) was an integral part of educational Curriculum broadly defined as a Classical education. 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