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Dr. Shaoyu Zhang - PhD,
professor of Tongliao Administrative College,
Inner Mongolia, China

Aristotle's philosophy is the source of human civilization

Content summary

Philosophy is the source of human civilization; Aristotle's philosophy is revealed the truth. From what is philosophy began to explain this conclusion. This is my study Aristotle's philosophy, and the latest achievements of the philosophy of the world to provide papers, BBS, engineers to readers.


Through the research Aristotle's philosophy, after that I understand human civilization is the source of philosophy. Philosophy is our philosophy and philosophical reveals the human principle, namely explain human activity pattern, “which is life on technology and reasoning”. In passing days, human progress of technology, the development of education and social democratic transitions are due to conform to the philosophy of nature of principle, it is not possible. Therefore, this paper analyzes the problems discussed, in order to explain the problem we need to define the nature of philosophy and form a definition. The so-called philosophical nature is often we speak of the definition of what is philosophy, in the form of philosophy is defined as the content of philosophy or philosophy is divided by several parts.

(1) the essence of philosophy. What is the problem that has been philosophical debate topics of philosophy? China's Jilin university professor of philosophy Gao Qing Hai had in his book the philosophy of a Japanese scholar's passage is very interesting, the Japanese scholar saidfor philosophers, so is the worst, the best method of math ‘philosopher is what is afraid is put forward this problem. Philosophy in the various philosophers all activities on many occasions, I'm afraid I don't know even philosopher peers in doing" [1]. The Japanese scholars mean, not to say, but say no definition of philosophy of the traditional definition of western philosophy too, but which is a standard, like the realistic society people already did not know what is right and wrong as!

According to Aristotle's writings, I study found: two thousand years ago, Aristotle's philosophy is defined. Philosophy is: "there is knowledge, the existence of the existence of existence" and "dependent" [2]. For objects. Actually there exist "is what we say things or concepts; the existence of" existence "is the dependence of the things which we speak of is what explain things or defined. Define concepts and knowledge as the object" composed. In primitive or reason as the goal, think and what purpose as the science. The definition of science and philosophy goals and objectives. The research object of philosophy is the object of philosophy is knowledge, or reason, philosophy of nature is revealed. Do people,

(2) Philosophy. Aristotle's philosophy of the content is divided into two parts, practice and speculative philosophy. A bit more specific, Aristotle is through the nature of things or causes to prove the philosophy of the content. He thinks, because there are four things, because, because, the material of purpose and for [3]. Besides, he put the material for discussion in the form of part is called the first philosophy, discussed the first philosophy is two parts of the knowledge content, namely the concepts and definitions, the problem on the Aristotle is analyzed after;" He called for the discussion of dynamic physics (also called the second philosophy) or natural philosophy, the discussion of philosophy, or explain the reasons movement of principle, so called physics, Aristotle is mainly in the physics of the discussion. The first and second philosophy are called speculative philosophy. He called for the discussion of philosophy of praxis, namely the principle of humanity and explained. Because only one life, there is the desire and the animals. The content is the ethics in Aristotle's work. We use Pai Chu Fa the philosophy of the content is divided into two parts, namely the speculative and practice of two parts.

One, Knowledge and understanding of a discussion, the first philosophy.

We have introduced the first philosophy and philosophical (2) referred to as speculative philosophy in physics. Discuss the first philosophy form for discussion in the power, for the second philosophy or physics, it is both a speculative philosophy, the synthesis is one, Secondly, the second philosophy is power or physics, namely because things are static movement (in the form of exercise, it is something of a missing) movement, The first philosophy discloses the material with things is the reason of the existence of the separation, reveals the existence of things and what form, which is due to knowledge. The second is the first philosophy of fist philosophy, in other words, the knowledge of physics is due to form of the fist about knowledge. Have the power of physics we could enter the first philosophy, because this also verified after the first philosophy for physics. But the first philosophy is discussed in the metaphysics of later generations, but in the analysis of the discussion after. Aristotle's philosophy of the largest contribution to human, not only because of the first philosophy created knowledge system, also tell the human understanding.

After the analysis of Aristotle "in knowledge and understanding are discussed. After the analysis of Aristotle's" in "refers to the so-called division knowledge, as long as we grasp it, can according to know things "[4]. After the analysis of Aristotle in "not only explains what is knowledge, but he still use the first thing whether there are proved syllogistic combination of knowledge, and what is the acquisition of knowledge and understanding. - About the method of cognition, Aristotle for two kinds, namely inductive reasoning and proof of science. Regarding proof science is a known methods, in Aristotle after analysis ", he said: "if also has other known methods we discussed below. We know that whatever we gain knowledge is proved through. I called to produce the proof is of scientific knowledge," [5] syllogistic. About inductive reasoning is an understanding of the method in the problem, Aristotle after analysis "explained": obviously, we must get through initial premise of induction, because this is our knowledge through the concept of common senses obtain "[6]. These two words tell us the inductive reasoning and proof of science is two kinds of knowledge.

Aristotle and said nothing is known about what is the problem of knowledge, no need for him to discuss, because he has made the teacher Plato. What is known regarding the tiger, Plato, ted, "explained to realize" means to acquire knowledge[7]. This sentence tells us: the process of knowledge is known something. Then the Aristotle’s teacher Plato is based on two kinds of knowledge explained, a method is inductive reasoning, another one is proof of science (1) syllogistic reasoning.

Knowledge about the origin of the problem, after I was caused by the Greek words. The characters are drawing language (also called the meaning word), and then is pictographic, China has keeping pictographic until now, says it is ideograms. Westerners from Egypt to Phoenicia holy chirography, after logophonetic, letter writing. Due to the alphabet can explain things directly, so have more letters to the meaning of things do further explanation, this is the so-called definition. But China's hieroglyphs, see the word can see it represents, original is no longer with other words of things, so also no definition. Plato's works have things about names and definition of exploration, Aristotle in Plato etc on the basis of former solved using syllogistic reasoning with a poor definition of problem. Through the investigation of natural Aristotle illustrates the natural name, with the concept of later generations. Knowledge and understanding as it is said, this research and provisions of philosophy is the significant contribution. This also revealed a person's intelligence is one of the methods of understanding potential problems.

    Second, the principle of human practice philosophy revelation

Practice philosophy reveals people do. People work must be rational virtue and morality, only the two kinds of virtue, talent to be happy. Aristotle in Nicomachean ethics, said: "Happy in the reality meets moral activities", "virtue and morality are rational virtue too"[8]. Therefore, moral and ethical morality meets reason things not only oneself get happiness, and others will be happy. This is the principle of life, namely the principle of human nature.

On the principle of human nature, in his "ethics" Aristotle, makes a detailed discussion. His hand from the Angle of happiness, on the other hand from the Angle of human nature reveals the reasoning principle. His happiness in the discussion, he explained the "happiness" as the ultimate purpose - to the good. How can happiness in his statement said: "the happiness is the reality meets moral activities". When people seek happiness, but only activity can only virtue of activities to happiness. Virtue is two kinds of a rational moral character is mainly refers to the reason (or, cognition, and the knowledge of application), one is morality (morality refers mainly to justice. Contains two aspects: moral rational cognition, one is a desire. When a person to do things, if encounter with his knowledge of the cognition, through he had a solution to the problem, and finally achieve the purpose of man desires and tell the knowledge (meaning). But things alone are not enough knowledge, even when people work to social ethics. Social ethics and morality, morality is the basis and work. In morality, morality is the best, because the fair justice is the good of others, that means (good). Therefore, people will do according to justice. And justice is derived from natural, another from law, to make the law and justice must rely on democracy, it is proved by history origin and democratic society. Philosophy of so-called human goodness or evil, if use Aristotle's philosophy is good understanding, accord with virtue is good, do not accord with virtue if animals only desire is evil.

On the other hand from the Angle of deductive reasoning Aristotle reveals the human activity mode. Aristotle thinks that human activity is a thought, the thoughts is a process. We know that human activity is to achieve a goal (good), and human activity ultimate purpose is happy to have it. Animals, animal is not only survived, desire can survive. Therefore, the practice, it is thought, first reasoning (deductive reasoning), then choose action. Aristotle, the optimal platform in Hume of say: "is the aim and thought, is the end point of behavior"[9], in his Nicomachean ethics said: "the practice with nature and deductive also starting point. This is a purpose and highest good"[10]. We know that is the starting point and deductive reasoning property and end, people know the starting point and destination is clearly seen. But the practice of two starting point, the purpose and good (happiness), the property that have two, morality and virtue. The two end of interpretation is two, one must also is purpose, a is behavior. Specific reasoning is: Happiness - rational virtue, rational virtue - (selection) purpose, Purpose – morality, morality - (choice) behavior. Through the above discussion description: Aristotle is deductive reasoning reveals the activity patterns. People must realize the purpose, work must be based on morality (morality refers mainly to justice) and rational virtue (mental character is mainly refers to the cognition, or who has knowledge of the application, this is the life), also known as the principle of humanity.

Third, promote the five questions of human civilization through the investigation of Aristotle's philosophy, I have five, promote human civilization manner, or practice from philosophy.

(1) knowledge system. Knowledge system including the knowledge and knowledge of the composition and function of knowledge. Plato and Aristotle jointly completed the knowledge system of the relevant problems. After the analysis of Aristotle in say: "the so-called scientific knowledge, refers to as long as we grasp it, can according to know things ". This is about the definition of knowledge. Aristotle's teacher Plato explains knowledge. Plato is on the explanation of the o ted, he says, that knowledge is true faith to explain differences [11], Knowledge is the translation of the name and definition of "combination" or "concept and definition of". But what is the knowledge of Plato's definition of knowledge is the knowledge, but the composition. Knowledge about the problem, Plato is composed in the method of doing further explanation, also is the name, definition and the relationship between things done in detail, he said: "I mean: first, the real existence of the truth; second, the definition of; the third, "it said," this name, you know, our existing things can be asked two questions." "What the two California Cleveland?" "A person sometimes only in Athens, ask others put forward; sometimes only provides definitions, ask others to define the name" to provide the corresponding [12].

About knowledge, Plato and Aristotle, who were explained. In their view of knowledge are three: one is to teach things. Plato is on the tai o ted "said:" when we take away the knowledge, we call "teach", but when received from him knowledge, we call "learning", and when we put in his cage knowledge, in this sense, we call their own "know" (" know "Plato is said with knowledge") "[13]. Aristotle in the metaphysics of say: "overall, known and unknown whether the symbol is taught" [14]. Two things are known. Aristotle in the metaphysics said: "we said knowledge and feeling is the scale, because things with them, we just have cognitive". Three is the practice of knowledge. Knowledge into practice provides the basis this problem Plato and Aristotle are explained in Europe, Plato's Hume polity "say:" visible in all kinds of industries, knowledge not only provide humans produce good luck, but also act [15] ". Plato is on the wishes of in defense, said: "we have the ability to understand anybody know things, and this knowledge into action" [16]. Aristotle about knowledge and practice more detailed explanation of "ethics", in his philosophy of praxis of proof, the proof of principle of humanity is Aristotle.

(2) does the person's behavior patterns. Aristotle's philosophy is the practice of work according to reveal the. He said, practice philosophy is "understand (reveal individual things (that) I do every thing) and why should" science [17]. In other words, his practice philosophy with the work successfully explain deduction, achieve success (a) the purpose of behavior based on problems. Because people's behavior choice, the choice is to begin by deduction, and the activities and deduce the starting point is the objective and good (happiness), property is rational and morality. This means that people's behavior choice is based on the knowledge and law. In other words, people will get happiness, work must be based on the knowledge and law, that is, on the contrary, human nature, is the humanity, it is also practice philosophy of life. So tell us, Aristotle's philosophy of human behavior patterns, namely the principle.

  (3) promote the science and technology. Human history of science and technology and methods related proof, this method is Aristotle methods of knowledge. History has proved: the western development of science and technology is the two known method, scientific theory is by deductive reasoning, experimental science and technology by inductive reasoning. Europe's three academic revolution were also benefited people about the use of method. According to the British scholar, a Greek dampier stage, Renaissance and the twentieth century with the method. Harvard University President elliott had before, "said the books we westerners have one thing is that the east, which is not of the progress in the past 100 years. Western completely due to the induction by scholars with inductive unbeaten. East to the experimental method, so chi to seek true emptiness false" [18].

(4) provides a democratic system basis. Studies of ancient Greek philosophy makes me understand why some ethnic and national social system exists defects, its reason is the understanding and source of justice. Human society to achieve justice, we first make clear the significance of justice, Aristotle thinks that justice is a reservoir of all virtue and morality is the best in others, justice is the good (good), it is better than brave, morality is as brave as morality is because of his own good. Therefore, morality is the core should be fair. Every man according to his social ethical practice of justice, others will not happiness, happiness, harmonious society can also. If you lack of social morality, some people just this principle to do his will, others happy happiness. Such as slavery society, feudal society is holding the power of happiness, most people have happiness. To ensure the social morality to justice for the core, Aristotle thinks that laws must be impartial legal justice, is to ensure that the social morality fair. How to ensure legal justice? Western have a precedent that democracy. Western democracy is built on the basis of natural law, natural law has two, one is the theory of natural rights, the other is a social contract theory, based on the universal declaration of human rights and the west are American constitutionalism. However, the law of justice is the Aristotelian sources, and the principle of justice should also be to republican in the early for the core of each mark is discussed. The western theory of natural law is a kind of hypothesis. Of course, the practice of western constitutional core is the universal declaration of human rights and democracy, a democratic can ensure social justice, making the national power to justice and fairness of the exercise. So some exercise of power according to the practice, not only their own happiness, also ensure happiness of others.

(5) provides education mode. Our education purpose of human society in general, for the society said train qualified people, concrete is made by education pedagogue increase knowledge, training and development ability to adapt to society.

From the principle of human nature of Aristotle's explanation we found: only do these two kinds of virtue meets activity is happiness. Then said, "but neatly on technology and human life" [19] reasoning. That is, man is part of life experience on, Part of life by reasoning. It is two lifestyle western education model reveals the secrets.

Starting from

1) developed intelligence activities. Develop intelligence, the person is in fact the mining methods of knowledge induction. Potential Harvard University President Elliott had before, said: "we have something orientals westerners have, this is the induction method". Actually regardless of eastern or western everyone has the potential to induction, but we can't dig problems. We develop intelligence is the process of mining induced potential, especially in the minors, it will play from the nature of man, because children like to play and do all kinds of games, so they accumulated experience from this process is the potential for the development, to develop intelligence purposes. And out of one's life, by instilling book knowledge to develop the potential induction. It has been proved by history of China's education falls, the circle, the education against the children of humanity, with the principle of implant knowledge to improve intelligence and, eventually, methods, which have created intellectual and creative.

2) life is by reasoning improving a factor. We discuss the intelligence, another factor induction is deductive reasoning. Besides, we use the method of cognition of the inductive reasoning, people use more deductive reasoning (the first case of syllogistic reasoning), because the deductive reasoning is mathematical theory, the best method is scientific understanding of Aristotle told one way, It is in the rhetoric of proof of reasoning, In Plato's dialectics is the dialectical reasoning, In the practice of activities. Deduce Deductive reasoning method is practical, the scientific theory of people's work also can improve this aspect of intelligence. Of course to learn and grasp the deductive reasoning, want to notice the mathematical knowledge should be more training will be more effective, Plato had explained.

3) tell people life and reasoning, this "political animal training process. People must according to the fair ethics and morality and the core is fair, fair is a natural justice, depends on the nature of the justice from illustrates social political animal training process, but also tell people how to adapt to the social basis, this is called the basis of eq.

China brigade in Japan, a writer kato sino-forest "pre-school education published recently in China in the future" education but said: pre-school children at 3 o'clock: "how, with classmates; second, how to treat elders politeness; third, how to solve the problem by themselves.

So-called eq education or emotional, not only is the family education, which is friendship, equality, mutual cooperation and the education. Pre-school education, elementary school in the west and middle school in sport, but not a man of any sport, but organized activities, cultivate friendship, equality, mutual emotional intelligence of interpersonal relationship, and also in game activities cultivate interest, the development potential of this, we have achieved the education purpose.


I speak the influence of human civilization five factors are from philosophy, have a plenty of consciousness, such as behavior patterns, knowledge system, Have not consciously, such as human's science and technology development, the establishment of a democratic society, and the education mode. But the tradition of western philosophy is not realize. I: why not put on the analysis of the historical philosophy and the practical significance of the clear, lies in the division of philosophy. From the 200 years has three points, philosophy is the natural philosophy and philosophy of spirit and logic. As the first philosophy, and the possible lal fix view, his name in the preface of the seers zhe said: "philosophy has three parts: natural science, ethics, natural dialectics. Discuss the universe and all the things of life, and our research related to all things; dialectical rule over both use logical rules" [20]. He also thinks philosophical development steps, it is also introduced in Plato's philosophy, he said, he said: "in the early days, it is only one theme, namely, the natural philosophy is introduced, namely the Socrates, Plato ethics will introduce a third, namely, that is, the philosophy of dialectics, perfect" [21].

Because of the philosophy of third overall philosophy that went wrong, which led to enhance human civilization of human philosophy no direct me after, it is worth pondering. Therefore, we must pay close attention to the correct Aristotle's philosophy, in order to achieve the purpose of ascension of human life.



[1] GaoQingHai the philosophy of "page 88, jilin university press, 1993.

[2] Aristotle: the metaphysics, MiaoLi 1003a20 field: the complete collection of Aristotle, Chinese people's university press, 1993

[3] Aristotle: the metaphysics, MiaoLi 983b1 field: the complete collection of Aristotle, Chinese people's university press, 1993

[4] Aristotle: analysis of 71b19, MiaoLi field: the complete collection of Aristotle, Chinese people's university press, 1993

[5] Aristotle: analysis of 71b18, MiaoLi field: the complete collection of Aristotle, Chinese people's university press, 1993

[6] Aristotle: analysis of 100b4, MiaoLi field: the complete collection of Aristotle, Chinese people's university press, 1993

[7] Plato: o the 209E "ted, WangXiaoChao: complete collection of Plato, people's publishing house, 2003

[8] Aristotle: of nicomachean ethics 1008b30, MiaoLi field: the complete collection of Aristotle, Chinese people's university press, 1993

[9] : the optimum stage Hume Aristotle, MiaoLi 1227b34 ethics, field: the complete collection of Aristotle, Chinese people's university press, 1993

[10] Aristotle: of nicomachean ethics 1144a31, MiaoLi field: the complete collection of Aristotle, Chinese people's university press, 1993

[11] Plato: o the 210A "ted, WangXiaoChao: complete collection of Plato, people's publishing house, 2003

[12] Plato: "895E, WangXiaoChao: complete collection of Plato, people's publishing house, 2003

[13] Plato: o the 198B "ted, WangXiaoChao: complete collection of Plato, people's publishing house, 2003

[14] Aristotle: the metaphysics, MiaoLi 981b9 field: the complete collection of Aristotle, Chinese people's university press, 1993

Plato: [15] champions of polity, Hume's 281B WangXiaoChao: complete collection of Plato, people's publishing house, 2003

[16] : in defence of Plato 979C WangXiaoChao, "Naomi," Plato's complete works ", people's publishing house, 2003

[17] Aristotle: the metaphysics, MiaoLi 982b5 field: the complete collection of Aristotle, Chinese people's university press, 1993

[18], "what philosophy is HuJunZhu first page 197, Peking University press, 2002

[19] Aristotle: the metaphysics, MiaoLi 980b27 field: the complete collection of Aristotle, Chinese people's university press, 1993

[20] the lal repaired nehemiah woth: the name of the seers zhe, xu, from the first eight pages, Princeton university press, 2010

[21] the lal repaired nehemiah woth: the name of the seers, xu from zhe, first 158, guangxi normal university press, 2010


通辽市行政学院  张少禹






根据我对亚里士多德著作研究发现:两千年前亚里士多德就是哲学下了定义。哲学是:以知识(原文是以“存在的存在”和“存在的存在的依存者”[2]。为对象。实际上“存在的存在”就是我们所讲的事物的名称或概念;“存在的存在的依存者”就是我们所讲的事物的事物的是什么的解释或叫定义。概念和定义组成知识)为对象;以本原或原因为目标;以为什么而做为目的的科学。这个 定义科学地揭示了哲学的对象、目标和目的。哲学的研究对象就是知识,哲学的目标是本原或原因,哲学的目的就是揭示人们做事的依据。














亚里士多德的老师柏拉图解释了知识的组成。柏拉图在《泰阿泰德》中解释的,他说,知识就是真实的信念伴以差异的解释11;翻译过来知识就是“名称和定义的组合”或者是“概念和定义的组合”。不过柏拉图所说的什么是知识这是知识的定义,而是知识的组成。关于知识组成的问题,柏拉图还在《法篇》中做过进一步解释,也就是对名称、定义和事物的关系做了详细地说明,他说:“雅典人  我的意思是:第一,事物的真实存在;第二,对这个真实存的‘定义’;第三,它的‘名称’。这样说你就明白了,我们对存在的事物都可以问两个问题。”“克利尼亚哪两上?”“雅典人  一个人有时候只提出名称,要求别人提供定义;有时候只提出定义,要求别人提供相应的名称”12

关于知识的作用,柏拉图和亚里士多德都做过解释。在他们看来知识的作用有三种:一是传授事物的作用。柏拉图在《泰阿泰德篇》中说:“当我们把知识交出去的时候,我们称之为‘教’,而当从他那里得到知识时,我们称之为‘学’,当我们把知识关在他的鸟笼中,在此意义上拥有它们时,我们称之为‘知道’( ‘知道’柏拉图说就是‘拥有知识’)”13。亚里士多德在《形而上学》中说:“总而言之,知与不知的标志是能否传授”14。二是认识事物的作用。亚里士多德在《形而上学》中说:“我们说知识和感觉是事物的尺度,因为借助于它们,我们才有所认知”。三是知识的实践的作用。知识为实践提供依据这个问题柏拉图和亚里士多德都做过解释,柏拉图在《欧绪德谟篇》中说:“可见,知识在各种行业中不仅给人类提供好运,而且还产生好的行动”15。柏拉图在《依庇诺米篇》中说:“我们中的任何人都有能力理解所得知的事情,并依据这种知识去行动”16。亚里士多德关于知识与实践的关系做的解释更详细,他在《伦理学》中对实践哲学的证明,这个证明就是亚里士多德对人性原理的解读。















[1]       高清海著,《哲学的憧憬》第88页,吉林大学出版社出版,1993年版。

[2]       亚里士多德:《形而上学》1003a20,苗力田主编:《亚里士多德全集》,中国人民大学出版社,1993年版

[3]       亚里士多德:《形而上学》983b1,苗力田主编:《亚里士多德全集》,中国人民大学出版社,1993年版

[4]       亚里士多德:《后分析篇71b19,苗力田主编:《亚里士多德全集》,中国人民大学出版社,1993年版

[5]       亚里士多德:《后分析篇71b18,苗力田主编:《亚里士多德全集》,中国人民大学出版社,1993年版

[6]       亚里士多德:《后分析篇100b4,苗力田主编:《亚里士多德全集》,中国人民大学出版社,1993年版

[7]       柏拉图:《泰阿泰德篇209E,王晓朝译:《柏拉图全集》,人民出版社,2003年版

[8]       亚里士多德:《尼各马科伦理学1008b30,苗力田主编:《亚里士多德全集》,中国人民大学出版社,1993年版

[9]       亚里士多德:《优台谟伦理学1227b34,苗力田主编:《亚里士多德全集》,中国人民大学出版社,1993年版

[10]     亚里士多德:《尼各马科伦理学1144a31,苗力田主编:《亚里士多德全集》,中国人民大学出版社,1993年版

[11]     柏拉图:《泰阿泰德篇210A,王晓朝译:《柏拉图全集》,人民出版社,2003年版

[12]     柏拉图:《法篇895E,王晓朝译:《柏拉图全集》,人民出版社,2003年版

[13]     柏拉图:《泰阿泰德篇198B,王晓朝译:《柏拉图全集》,人民出版社,2003年版

[14]     亚里士多德:《形而上学》981b9,苗力田主编:《亚里士多德全集》,中国人民大学出版社,1993年版

[15]     柏拉图:《欧绪德谟篇》281B,王晓朝译:《柏拉图全集》,人民出版社,2003年版

[16]     柏拉图:《依庇诺米篇》979C,王晓朝译:《柏拉图全集》,人民出版社,2003年版

[17]     亚里士多德:《形而上学》982b5,苗力田主编:《亚里士多德全集》,中国人民大学出版社,1993年版

[18]     胡军著,《哲学是什么》第197页,北京大学出版社,2002

[19]     亚里士多德:《形而上学》980b27,苗力田主编:《亚里士多德全集》,中国人民大学出版社,1993年版

[20]     第欧根尼ž拉尔修著:《名哲言行录》,徐开来等译,第8页,广西师范大学出版社,2010年版

[21]     第欧根尼ž拉尔修著:《名哲言行录》,徐开来等译,第158页,广西师范大学出版社,2010年版


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